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In determining the suspended solids the sample water was then filtered, using the filter machine of the Limnology Department of the BFAR. There was a filter paper where the solids must adhere to themselves. The filter paper of each individual sample was placed in an oven to dry and was placed in the desiccator to remove moisture which was left behind from the filter paper. The dried filter paper was then weighed using the analytical balance. Below is the formula used by the researcher in determining the total suspended solid of the water.
W.S – Weight of samples
F – Filter (Weight)
W.F.P – Weight of filter paper
S.S – Suspended solids
100ml of sample water was placed in Erlenmeyer flask and a Buffer solution was added to it. Buffer solution was prepared by mixing Cl) Ammonium Chloride 67.5g, ( OH) Concentrated Ammonium hydroxide 570ml and distilled water 1l. Then 8 drops of Eriochrome black T indicator and titrate with EDTA solution were added. Eriochrome black was prepared by dissolving 4.5g hydroxylamine hydrochloride and 0.5G Eriochrome black T in 100 ml of 70% ethanol. 3.723 g EDTA and 0.1 gram magnesium chloride 6-hydrate [ .6 O] in distilled water and dilute to 1 litter. It was then Standardized against the standard Calcium solution. At the end point of Titration, the solution changed from wine red to pure blue.
Biological Oxygen Demand
Water samples were transferred to BOD bottles which were like reagent bottle and were shaken well till DO is equal to recorded DO value. Then the reagent bottle was incubated for 5 days. Then DO of the incubated water was calculated using titration method. Difference of initial and final reading of DO is called Biological Oxygen Demand.
B.O.D = DO before incubating – DO after incubating
Determination of chemicals in the water
10 ml of water was obtained from the filtered water sample and was placed in a test tube. A 0.2ml sulphanilamide was added followed by 0.2ml of N-(1-Napthyl) ethelenediamine. The solution was transferred to a cuvettemade to let stand for 20 minutes and placed in the spectrophotometer. The absorbance value wasset at 530 wavelength.
10 ml of water was obtained from the filtered water sample and was placed in a test tube where 5 ml. Ammonium molybdate, 12.5ml, Sulfuric acid 5ml Ascorbic acid and 2.5ml Antimonyl potassium tartrate were added in the test tube. The solution was then transferred to a cuvettemade to let stand for 20 minutes and placed in the spectrophotometer where the absorbance was set at 885 wavelength.
250ml of water samples had to be taken in plastic bottles and 0.5ml HgCl2is added and stored in ice. 100ml of reagent A (Phenol melted with 30g of glacial acetic acid and 1.36g of sodium acetate trihydrate to 1l distilled water) and 2ml of Reagent B (3g of nitroprusside was dissolved in 100ml distilled water) were mixed. 1 ml mixture was added to 10 ml water samples. Reagent C (Potassium carbonate 300g and sodium phosphate 60g to 1l of distilled water) was mixed with hypochlorite solution. 1ml of it was added to 10ml water samples. When the mixture was finished, the color turned to blue. After letting it stand for around 30 minutes, it was centrifuged for 10 minutes at 5000 RPM. Read wavelength under spectrometer at 625 wavelength.
SSV – absorbance of standard solution
BV – absorbance of blank
SV – absorbance of sample
Tools for Analysis
To answer question number one descriptive interpretation of the laboratory results were done.
To answer question number two mean was computed since the water was collected physicochemical analysis data from five stations, it is important to obtain the mean value of the data in order to answer the first statement of the problem of the study.
Mean according to statistics is the average value of the data. Furthermore, ANOVA One way Analysis of Variance was also doneat 0.05 level of significance to determine the significant difference between and sampling site along Pantal River.
For computation, the following formulawas used.
The correlation factor CF
The total sum of squares TSS
The between sum of squares SSB
The within sum of squares SSW
The degree of freedom df
Mean of sum of the squares
N = Number of data
n = Number of rows
k = number of column
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