Hyper refers to an increase in temperature that is abnormally high and Pyrexia is the term used to describe fever. A fever occurs an event when body temperature increases above 98.6 degree Fahrenheit. Hyperpyrexia is whenever the body’s temperature increases over 106.7 temperatures Fahrenheit. It is medical emergency that is requires immediate medical treatment.
Pyrexia is among the most complex manifestations of disease, and one of the most prominent symptoms frequently present in pathogenic disruptions of metabolism. It’s not often seen in acute infections or serious trauma. It also more often indicates the type of the illness and the extent of the injury than the other sign other than the rashes specific to contagious diseases.
The signs of hyperpyrexia
In addition to a temperature that is more than 106degF (41.1degC) or greater the symptoms of hyperpyrexia could be:
- Heart rate that is irregular or increased
- Muscle spasms
- rapid breathing
- Mental confusion or changes in state
- loss of consciousness
Hyperpyrexia is regarded as an emergency medical condition. If not treated organ damage or death could happen. Always seek medical attention immediately.
Infections of the respiratory tract in lower parts, such as the bronchitis (inflammation in the air tubes that transport blood to and from the lung)
A bacterial lung infection is known as tuberculosis
Infections of the urinary tract that are complicated
Bone infections, such as Osteomyelitis
A infected with a bacterium that affects the cardiac tissue, also known as endocarditis.
Viral infections like HIV (Human-Immunodeficiency syndrome) and Cytomegalovirus
Brain-related conditions such as haemorrhages or fever
Malignant diseases like Leukaemia as well as renal cell carcinoma
The bladder and bowel are the most common causes of urinary tract problems.
Reactions to blood transfusions
Hyperpyrexia in children
Kawasaki disorder or syndrome may be a trigger for hyperpyrexia, particularly for children. Kawasaki syndrome can cause inflammation of the medium-sized arteries in the body. One indication for Kawasaki disease is high fever. This may cause hyperpyrexia when untreated.
Prevention of Pyrexia:
The following steps can help be taken to prevent pyrexia:
Maintaining proper self-hygiene
Hands should be washed regularly prior to eating.
Hand sanitisers are used when there isn’t access to water
The mouth and nose should be covered while traveling on public transport to avoid introduction of pathogens that cause disease into the body.
Disting glasses, plates or cups with others should be avoided.
Coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe chronic respiratory syndrome, coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) It is an epidemic in the world of health that is a cause for concern, and the effective treatment and prevention remains elusive. Hyperpyrexia is an elevation of body temperature above 106.7degF (41.5degC) due to an abnormally increased hypothalamic-thermoregulatory set. The causes, effects on the outcome of hyperpyrexia in patients suffering from COVID-19 are not fully examined. In this paper, we discuss the clinical characteristics and outcomes of six patients suffering from COVID-19 who experienced hyperpyrexia in the course of their hospitalization. All patients died shortly after the first signs of hyperpyrexia. Hyperpyrexia appears to have a negative impact on the outcomes and the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients.
Hyperpyrexia in COVID 19 :
Our case series revealed the 100% mortality rate in patients suffering from COVID-19 who been diagnosed with hyperpyrexia. Hyperpyrexia can be a sign of poor clinical outcomes and may increase the risk of death in COVID-19 patients. The causes of hyperpyrexia in COVID-19 remain unclear but it is possible that it is a result of brain injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 as well as an exuberant immune reaction and the formation of thrombuses.
Prognosis and treatment
The treatment of pyrexia in a proactive manner is a topic of contention since many have said that the symptoms are a part of the body’s response to infection. There isn’t any evidence that bringing down a fever can improve outcomes.
Physical measures, such as taking off the excess clothing or bathing in a tepid water are typically the first steps that are tried.