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What does skin do?
Skin, which is our largest organ, serves many functions. It Protects the network of muscles and bones, nerves and blood vessels, as well as everything else in our bodies.Protein in Hair and Nails which is Keratinocytes.
- Forms a barrier to prevent harmful substances and germs entering the body
- Protects the body’s tissues from injury
- Helps regulate body temperature by regulating sweat when it’s hot and keeping heat in the body when it’s cold.
- People wouldn’t feel warmth, cold or any other sensations without the nerve cells that make up their skin.
- Each square inch of skin has thousands of cells, hundreds of sweat glands and oil glands, as well as nerve endings and blood vessels.
What are the parts of skin?
Skin has three layers: the epidermis (ep-ih-DUR-mis), dermis (DUR-mis), and the subcutaneous (sub-kyoo-TAY-nee-us) tissue.
The epidermis, or upper layer of the skin, is what we call it. The epidermis is a tough outer layer that protects the skin. It can be thin or thick depending on where it is located. There are layers of cells in the epidermis that continually flake off and get renewed. These layers contain three types of cells:
Melanocytes (pronounced meh-LAH’nuh-sites), are responsible for making melanin, which is the pigment that gives skin its colour. There are roughly equal numbers of melanocytes in everyone. The darker the skin, the more melanin is produced. The production of melanin is increased by sunlight, which is why some people are freckled or sun-kissed.
Keratinocytes (ker-uh-TIH-no-sites) make keratin, a type of protein that’s a basic component of hair, skin, and nails. Keratin is found in the outer layer of skin, which helps to create a protective barrier.
Langerhans cells (LAHNG-ur hanz) help to protect the body from infection.
Cuts and scrapes heal quickly because the epidermis cells are replaced approximately every 28 days.
The dermis lies below the epidermis. Here are blood vessels, nerve endings and hair follicles. The epidermis is nourished by the dermis. The skin is nourished by two types of fibers — collagen, and elastin.
A person’s skin contains the sebaceous glands (sih BAY-shiss). These glands produce the oil sebum (SEE’bum), which makes the skin soften and waterproof.
The bottom layer of skin is the subcutaneous (sub-kyuh-TAY-nee-iss) tissue. It is made up of connective tissues, blood vessels, as well as cells that store fat. This layer protects the body from injuries and heat loss.
What does hair do?
Hair on our heads is more than just a pretty thing. It retains heat and keeps us warm.
These sensitive areas are protected from dust and particles by hair around the ears and in the nose and ears. Eyebrows and eyelashes help protect the eyes from light and particles by reducing their exposure.
The fine hair on the body protects and warms the skin.
What are the parts of hair?
Hair is made up of the following:
- The hair shaft is the portion that sticks out above the skin’s surface.
- Root is a soft, thickened bulb located at the base of hair
- The follicle (FAHLK-ih-kul), is a sac-like hole in the skin, from which hair grows.
The papilla, or puh-PILL-uh, is located at the base of the hair follicle. This is where hair growth actually takes place. The papilla is home to an artery which nourishes the roots of the hair. As cells multiply, they produce keratin which hardens the structure. They’re then pushed up the hair shaft through the skin’s surface.
There are three layers to a hair:
- The medulla (meh DULL-uh), located in the middle, is soft.
- Cortex is located around the medulla, and it is the major part of the hair.
- The cuticle (pronounced KYOO-tuh kull), is the outer hard layer that protects your shaft.
The roots of hair grow by creating new cells. These cells grow to create a rod of skin tissue. As new cells develop beneath them, the rods of cells move up through the skin. They move up and become dehydrated, forming a protein called Keratin. This process is called keratinization (ker-uh-tuh-nuh-ZAY-shun). This is when the hair cells cease to exist. The shaft of the hair is formed by the dead cells and keratin.
The hair grows everywhere except for the lips, soles and feet of the feet, the palms of your hands, and the soles of your feet. The summer is faster than the winter and night is slower than day.
What do Nails Do?
The sensitive tips of the fingers and toes are protected by nails. Our nails are not necessary for survival, but they support our tips and protect our toes from injury and allow us to pick up small items. We wouldn’t be able to scratch an itch or untie a knot without them.
A person’s nails can indicate their general health and illness can affect their growth.
What are the parts of nails?
Deep folds in the skin between the fingers and the toes are what allow for the formation of nails. They increase in number as the epidermal cells beneath the nail root rise to the surface. The cells closest to the nail root become flattened and press tightly together. Each cell becomes a thin plate. These plates are piled together to form the nail.
Keratinization is what forms nails, just like hair. The nail pushes forward when the nail cells become more dense.
The matrix is the skin beneath the nail. Because of the network of small blood vessels in the dermis, the larger portion of the nail, or nail plate, appears pink. The lunula is the white, crescent-shaped, area at the base the nail.
Toenails and fingers grow faster than those of the feet. Nails grow more quickly in summer than winter, just like hair. If the matrix isn’t severed, a nail that has been torn will grow back.