Related Studies of Pantal River
When Erick from Kenya researched on River Ngong in the Nairobi river basin.They found that this river receives enormous amounts of solid and liquid waste from industrial and domestic discharges and water quality is affected. Some pollutants are found to be carcinogenic and hazardous and it affects the health of the people who use this untreated water for domestic purposes. According to their research, environmental degradation became a common problem and both inorganic and organic materials are pollutants and they affect the quality of the water. Researchers checked for Water temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Turbidity, Conductivity, and the amount of polycyclic aromatic organic compounds present in water. The result obtained from the research was compared with WHO report and level of pollution is analyzed. Theresults showed slight variation of physicochemical standards and thus indication of pollution. The parameters included in the study of Erick is also the same parameters that this study tends to examine. This study gave standard values for various physicochemical parameters according to WHO. River Ngong is polluted and the research is actually conducted in order to check with standard values that help relate with the obtained values and thus analyze the pollution level.(Erick et al., 2016).
According to Medudhula.Thirupathaiah et.al. (2012) from India who analyzed about water quality using physico-chemical parameters in lower manair reservoir of Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh (Present Telugana) aimed at giving a clear picture about physiochemical characteristics of Lower Manairreservoir in Andhra Pradesh, India. The results indicated that physico-chemical parameters of the water were within the permissible limits and thus can be used for domestic purposes, irrigation and pisciculture. The researchers studied about the water and tested it throughout the year in different seasons for analyzing the water quality.
With the help of this research, Stagnant water in dams which are used for various purposes like agriculture, irrigation and industrial water supply and are indispensable in our daily urban life’s physicochemical characteristics are checked and values are found to be similar with standards according to ICMR. ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) provides standard values for pure water that can be consumed. (Medudhula.Thirupathaiah et.al, 2012)
K.E. Ibrahim (2015) from Nigeria researched on Physicochemical Characteristics of Water Samples Collected from River Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria and they researched elaborately that they collected water at six different points in two different seasons and analyzed physiochemical characteristics of water. This research helped them to analyze the difference in water quality during two different season and come to a conclusion. Finally they concluded that the water from Sokotoriver in Nigeria can be used significantly for agricultural purposes like irrigation after analyzing the physical and chemical parameters of the river which are within permissible limit as per WHO’s standard. Our study is limited to dry season checking only whereas this study checked the physicochemical characteristics in both rainy season and dry season. According to the above research, certain physicochemical parameters tend to fluctuate with the season. For example, Ammonia value seemed higher during rainy season than that of dry season. (Ibrahim et.al. 2015)
Abdul-KarimKhal-Bermani,JasimM.Salman published a journal on Environmental study of water quality and some heavy metals in water, sediment and aquatic macrophytes in lotic ecosystem, Iraq. In this research, they analyzed various physical and chemical properties of water. This is just a survey giving idea on characteristics of water in different regions of Iraq and also gives an idea about the hardness, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, amount of heavy metals in water, temperature, turbidity etc., Researchers concluded that the presence of aquatic plants like Ceratophyllumdemersum and Hydrillaverticellata affect the quality of water in a good way to an extent. In this research, the physicochemical parameters are checked monthly and they found that there were seasonal variations of amount of nutrients in the drain water and also suggested that the aquatic plants can be pollution indicators. (Abdul,K et.al. 2015)
Teck-Yee Ling et.al from university of Malaysia researched on Physicochemical Characteristics of River Water Downstream of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam. They felt that the water quality of the river water is affected by the hydroelectric dam and wanted to analyze the physiochemical characteristics of the water. Bakun hydroelectric dam seem to regulate the quality of downstream water. The downstream water was highly turbid thus ph was less. Dissolved oxygen was also comparatively low. So it affects the animals that it has less organisms. This research analyzed the physicochemical characteristics of the river water where a hydroelectric dam is situated. This study explained how the downstream water and the presence of hydroelectric dam affects the quality of water and presence of aquatic livings.(Teck,Y.L et.al, 2016)
TibebuAlemu et.al Determined on the physicochemical parameters of “Hora” natural mineral water and soil in SenkeleKebele, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.The following research aim was to analyze whether the water can be used for drinking. The physical and chemical characteristics of water was under accepting limits as listed in WHO rules. Thus they concluded that the water can be used for drinking. They also suggested to conduct further researches on this water about microorganisms living and to study on biological characteristics of water. This researchers tested the natural mineral water and the soil and analyzed physicochemical characteristics especially the chemical characteristics of the river water with WHO standard values. The physicochemical characteristics of the brackish river water’s is much different from that of spring drinking water. (Tibebu, A et.al., 2017)
For analyzing the physiochemical characteristics of water, Water was collected from Tigerisriver from upstream, midstream and downstream. Tigris river in Baghdad was considered as a highly polluted river and it didn’t support Aquatic life. The researched listed out various pollutants in the river and suggested for cleaning so it would help many people. The researchers used standard values of the physicochemical characteristics from the CCME WQI (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index) and concluded that the Tigeris River is very polluted and unfit for domestic and other agricultural and industrial uses. (Environ.J et al, 2015)
R. Radha Krishnan, K. Dharmaraj and B.D. RanjithaKumari (2015) collected the water from drinking water source, bore-well and sewage water in the three different places of Sivakasi and conducted a research on physicochemical characteristics and bacterial presence and compared the three for result.Physicochemical characteristics of the Drinking and bore-well water was within permissible limit as said by WHO and sewage water is not suitable for domestic purposes. However all three waters are contaminated with Bacteria and fecal coliforms. (R. Radha Krishnan, 2015)
The above said research is different from our research that they collected water from different bore-wells and sewage canal and conducted an analysis on both physicochemical and biological characteristics. This research is a comparative study of three kinds of water and analyzing physicochemical characteristics and bacterial presence.
As per the research conducted by Amanial Haile on Drinking water collected from three different places at Arbaminch city, all physicochemical characteristics like pH, TDS, TSS were within permissible limits. However levels are high at a place and levels were higher but within maximum permissible limit as said by WHO. The researcher used standards from both WHO and US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (AmanialHaile , 2016).
The above explained research differs from our study since our study is to analyze the physicochemical characteristics of the river where the sea water enters twice a day.
River Kaveri waters were collected from four different places at Bangalore, India. Two rural stations and two urban stations are selected in order to get an insight. In this research, they found that the physicochemical parameters are within permissible Limit as said by WHO and the water is fit for agricultural and domestic use. This research gave an insight that the ions present are more in urban areas than at rural areas. She also suggest to continue with further hydrologic research to find if the ion concentration is due to the soil or urban environment. This research is much similar like ours except that the stations were selected farther. (Dr.C.Nagamani , 2015)
According to Dhanaji and Pramod, It is necessary to check the quality of the drinking water often in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle. They analyzed the physicochemical characteristics of both bore-well and river water because they felt that the ground water is polluted due to human activities for this decade. They selected 10 different stations where they collect both bore-well and well water and their result showed that water from all stations can be consumed on boiling because few parameters were higher than that of the standard WHO value. (Dhanaji, 2016.
In a local study conducted at Polillo island, Philippines (2015) to check the water quality,Physicochemicalanalysis, microbiological analysis and barangay health examination among people is done in order to find the water quality of drinking wells. According to this research, the physicochemical characteristics were under permissible limits as per WHO standards. However, the water is contaminated with fecal and coliform bacteria according to the microbiological analysis(Arthur et.al). In this research, the researchers analyzed both physicochemical and microbiological properties whereas our study is limited to physicochemical analysis only.
In a physicochemical study conducted at Cagayen de Oro city on the tap waters from six stations, it is concluded that the water’s physicochemical results were within the limits as per WHO standards except that the Total dissolved solids and Conductivity is above the standard (Joseph, 2013). In this research, the researchers analyzed pH, Salinity, conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids and temperature of the water samples from six different stations and for 2 times whereas pH, temperature, salinity, total hardness, turbidity, total suspended solids, amount of Ammonia, Nitrite and Phosphate, dissolved oxygen and Biological Oxygen Demand are the physicochemical characteristics considered in our research.
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